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The Shrub Forest Layer

Shrubs are perennials with a permanent framework of woody growth that stand lower in stature than the trees of the canopy layers. While trees have a single woody stem and grow upright and tall, shrubs typically have multiple woody stems that branch out and do not grow as tall. Shrubs that provide fruits or other edible yields, and nitrogen-fixing shrubs are among the important plants within this category when designing a food forest or another agroforestry system.